Here we attempt to give some information on influential key geoscientists taught us much about the geology, mineralogy and tectonics of the Arab World-Middle East region


ArabGU would also refer with honor to distinct geoscientists, who enriched the Earth Sciences library with research studies and textbooks written in Arabic (Download the list)

Mohamed Lotfi Abdel-Khalek (born 1927), emeritus professor of Geology at Cairo University, is the Chairman of the Geological society of Egypt and the former dean of the Faculty of Science, Cairo University (1981-1987).

Abdel-Khalek earned the Order of Science and Arts of the First Class and the State Award in the field of basic sciences, 2007.

B.Sc. Geology and Chemistry- Cairo University (with hons.), 1949

M.Sc. Geology- Cairo University, 1953

Ph.D. Geology- Cairo University, 1957

Associate professor in University of Pittsburgh (USA), 1966-1970.

Head of the Structural Geology Department, Faculty of Earth Sciences, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, K.S.A., 1975-1979.

Deputy of the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 1980-1981.

Deanof the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 1981-1987.

He authored 42 publications on the structural evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and supervised 29 M.Sv=c. and Ph.D. thesis.

Prof. Abdel-Khalek and his team in Cairo University conducted several research projects and influenced significantly the knowledge of the tectonics and evolution of the basement complex of Egypt. Out of the many outcomes of these projects, detailed geological maps of Egypt and Sudan are magnificent pieces of science. 

Prof. Abdel-Khalek is still doing consultations and helping young researchers in the field of Strucutral Geology. 

N.B. Information given below is derived mostly


Farkhonda Hassan (born 1930) is a professor of Geology at the American University in Cairo (AUC) and is chair of the Commission on Human Development and Local Administration of the Shura Council.

Prof. Farkhonda Hassan has a B.Sc. in Geology and Chemistry from Cairo University, an M.Sc. in Solid State Science from the American University in Cairo, and a Ph.D. in Geology from the University of Pittsburgh (USA). She also holds a Diploma in Psychology and Education from Ain Shams University in Egypt.

Prof. Farkhonda is co-chair of the Gender Advisory Board of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development and Secretary-General (2001) and Member of the National Council for Women in Egypt since 2000. As a scientist, politician and development specialist, her career has centered on women's causes in policies, public services, sciences, information and technology, social work at grass roots level, education and culture, and other disciplines. Her affiliations with national and international organizations, non-governmental organizations, research and knowledge institutions have been directed towards women's empowerment.

Prof. Farkhondahas served as a short-term consultant and expert to several international and regional programs organized by various UN Organizations such as UNIFEM, UNDP, INSTRAW and UNESCO.


Written by Prof. Baher El- Kaliouby (Ain Shams Univ., Egypt)


Prof. El Sayed Samir Omar El Gaby passed away on March 13, 2012, after a long illness at the age of seventy- eight. He was born on May 29, 1934, in Cairo. He entered Cairo University, receiving in 1954 his Bachelor of Science degree (B. Sc.) in special Geology (Excellent) with highest honors.  He assumed a Fellowship student position at the National Research Center in February 1955.

Thereafter, he started his Ph. D. at the Munchen University, Western Germany, where he received his Ph. D. degree in July 1962.

After finishing his studies in Germany, Prof. El Gay was employed as a member of the teaching staff at Assuit University. The years at Assuit were busy and productive. It would be difficult to list all of his many accomplishments and honors during the period from 1962 to 2012. During his tenure at Assuit, he shepherded 113 students to their graduate degrees and he produced more than 150 publications (including several books). He was Department Chairman at Assiut during the periods 1973 to 1977 and 1987 and 1993. After his retirement at August 1994, he continued as Professor Emeritus, guiding his remaining graduate students to their degrees.

Prof. El Gaby received many awards and honors, and he served the geological community well throughout his life. We remember El Gaby as a pioneer in the application of plate tectonics theory on the Egyptian Basement complex.

Those of us who were his students, his friends and colleagues will remember him as a patient teacher, a wise and helpful counselor, and a good friend. He expected much, but he gave much in return.  El Gaby lived a long and productive life. Still, his death came as a shock. He is sadly missed by his family, his former students, and his many friends.


Written by Prof. Baher El- Kaliouby (Ain Shams Univ., Egypt)

Prof. Mohamed Kamal Akaad (1924-2011), Prof. of petrology and geochemistry at the University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt, died after a long-lasting disease on 18th of July 2011 at age 87 in Alexandria. He was born on November 3rd, 1924 at Alexandria, North Egypt, where He grew up and lived there until his high- school graduation in 1944 at the age of 19. The larger part of his life he lived at the frontier between North and South Egypt. He began college at Farouk El Awal University (currently Alexandria University) in 1944, where he enrolled as a student of Geology. He obtained his Bachelor of Science degree (B. Sc.) in special Geology with highest honors in 1948. Prof. Mohamed Kamal El Akaad had a career that spanned 60 years. During that period he rendered distinguished service to our country. He began his first professional career with Mobile Oil Company (1948-1950). He was employed by the Geological Survey of Egypt in 1950 as a field geologist. In the same year, he was sent by the Geological Survey to England to begin his graduate studies, thus beginning his life-long career in igneous and metamorphic petrology. His graduate studies were supervised by Prof. Herbert Harold Read at the Imperial College of Science and technology in London, where he received his Ph.D. degree in 1954. After promotion, he attended Ain Shams (1955-1958). From 1958 to 1968 he continued his career at the University of Assuit as a Lecturer assistant professor and professor, close to the Central part of the Eastern Desert, which is a window into the orogenic belt of the Pan African orogeny. In 1969 Prof. Akaad was transferred to the Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, where he was appointed as the first Dean of the Faculty of Science (1969-1976) and later in 1976-1983 as Vice- president of Tanta University. From 1983to 1985 Prof. Akaad acted as president of Tanta University. In 1985he retired and became Professor Emeritus. Prof. Akaad received many high awards. He was awarded the Encouragement State Prize in Geology 1964, the Order of Science and Arts of the First Class in 1964, He also received Order of the Republic of the first layer in 1985, National Bank Award for scientific creativity in basic science in 1997 from the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology in 1997, and finally received the State Award in Science in 2000. He was a member and then Chairman of the Permanent Committee of the Geological Sciences for more than 25 years (1970-1995).  In 1957, He was involved in exploration for metallic mineral deposits (such as Iron and zinc) in the Eastern Desert. His report on the mineralized areas became the basis of more detailed studies. In 1960 he classified with Mahmoud Fawzy El Ramly the basement rocks of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. In 1969-1980 he mapped with Mohamed Abdel-Hamid Noweir central part of the Eastern Desert and reported about the geology and lithostratigraphy of the Arabian Desert orogenic belt of Egypt. He has left a bibliography of nearly 90 publications. Prof. Akaad has supervised more than 30 M. Sc. and 10 Ph. D. theses.

Prof. Akaad was highly engaged in many Egyptian and international scientific societies. He wasmember of the Geological Society of London, the Geological Society of Egypt and the International Union of Geological Sciences, Institut D’Egypt Le Caire, Egyptian Academy of Sciences and the council of basic sciences in the Academy of scientific research. Prof. Akaad was a most remarkable man, a very decent human being. He has left an indelible and illuminating impression on all areas of his interest, established unforgettably inspiring memories among all who knew him.

Written by Prof. Baher El- Kaliouby (Ain Shams Univ., Egypt)

Ahmed Hassanein Hashad, Professor of Geochemistry in the Nuclear energy Authoritydied on 14/12/2010. As he had generally been in good health, his death, which resulted from an unusual combination of circumstances, was a devastating blow to his family, friends and colleagues.

Prof. Hashad was born on July 19, 1938 in Cairo, and he attended several schools in Shubra area. In 1952 he entered the Department of Geology at Cairo University, obtaining a B.Sc. in 1957 in Chemistry- Geology with grade very good.

He began his practical career in July 1957 as a geologist in the phosphate company at Sebaya, Red Sea governorate. He moved to the Atomic Energy committee in October 1957 to begin his field work in Qatrani area in the Western Desert and Abu Zeneima area in Southern Sinai, 1958; and finally in Wadi El Gemal in the Eastern Desert 1959, where he succeeded in discovering new locations for radioactive mineralization.

He moved to U.S.A in December 1959 to begin his graduate studies at the University of Iota, Salt Lake City, Colorado. During his years at U.S.A he was a keen field geologist, but became increasingly interested in geochemistry, and made a detailed study of microchemical analyses of ores as part of his thesis work before receiving his Ph. D. degree in nuclear geochemistry in 1964.

In 1964 Hashad returned to Egypt to start his job as lecturer in the Nuclear Material Authority. In a highly productive period of two years he established Isotope geology laboratory.

The next move took Dr. Hashad to the Science Academy in Hungary in 1970 for one year, where he gave Lectures in Geochemistry in many Hungarian Universities and made many studies in the field of stable isotope geology.

One year later, he obtained the Assistant Professor degree in 1971 and appointed as Chairman of the Isotope geology unit and began supervising many M. Sc. and Ph. D. thesis in the field of geochronology and isotope geochemistry.

In 1974, he moved to King Abdel- Aziz University in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for four years to develop a distinctive education system in the faculty of Science.

In 1978, he promoted to professor of geochemistry. His scientific experience gave him the opportunity for election as president of the Science research sector in the Nuclear Material Authority. During this period, he was elected as member of the Permanent Committee of the Nuclear Material Authority.

In 1983, Prof. Hashad moved back to Saudi Arabia where he spent about ten years till 1992. During this period he was involved in a giant project for studying the geochemistry and distribution of radioactive elements in northern Arabian Shield.

In 1992, he moved again to Cairo. One of his duties was the foundation of the "Knowledge Center" in the NMA. In 1994 he retired from active Administrationbut remained involved in national and international professional affairs.

In recognition of his contributions to geology, he was elected in 1970a member ofthe Syndicate of Scientific Professions.  In 1972, he was invited to be a founding member of the Arab Society for Nuclear sciences. In the same year, he was elected as member of its council. In 1993 he was elected asSecretary General, Syndicate of Scientific Professions.

Prof. Hashad has been decorated with many high awards: the Encouragement State Prize in Geology 1980, the Order of Science and Arts of the First Class in 1983, and Within the space of academic career he published more than forty scientific publications and two books. He has left a bibliography of more than 70 publications and supervised more than 30 M. Sc. and Ph. D. theses. His detailed study of the geologic structure, history, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Egyptian radioactive minerals greatly clarified their nature. He described and investigated several new radioactive mineral locations; His study of radioactive minerals was extended into Saudi Arabia in the late 1970s.

Professor Hashad was a dedicated geochemist, and will be remembered as a kind teacher, friend and colleague. The loss to the Nuclear Material Authority and the scientific community of one who had so much yet to give is great, but nevertheless small compared to that suffered by his wife and two children.