Here we attempt to give some information on influential key geoscientists taught us much about the geology, mineralogy and tectonics of the Arab World-Middle East region


ArabGU would also refer with honor to distinct geoscientists, who enriched the Earth Sciences library with research studies and textbooks written in Arabic (Download the list)

Prof. Peter R. Johnson

6016 SW Haines Street, Portland, Oregon 97219, USA



1958-61: B.Sc Geology, University College, London University

1961-64: Ph.D., Calcutta University, India: Thesis title “The Structure and Stratigraphy of Part of the Upper Pranhita-Godavarai Valley with Special Reference to the Pre-Gondwanas”



1970-73: Exploration Geologist, Rio Tinto Finance and Exploration Ltd, UK

1973-77: Exploration Manager, Rio Tinto Finance and Exploration Ltd, Norway

1977-81: Geologist and Chief Geologist, Riofinex Ltd, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia

1982-90: Consultant, JV Associates Ltd, USA and UK

1990-2000: Technical Advisor, Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources and USGS Saudi Arabian Mission, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia

2000-2007: Technical Advisor: Saudi Geological Survey, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia

2007-present: Geologic Consultant; collaborator with the JEBEL research group (V. Pease, Stockholm University) and Jibalah isotopic and paleomagnetic research group (G. Halverson, McGill University)



Geological Society of America


Current Main Geologic Interests:

Structure, stratigraphy, tectonics, and metallogeny of the Arabian shield, NE Africa, and southern Africa


Consultant Reports:

2009, Review of gold projects and their regional geologic setting, Zimbabwe.

2009, Exploration and geologic investigations in the Precambrian of western Saudi Arabia.

2008, The Precambrian geology of Tanzania, Overview and tectonic framework.


Selected Publications:

2013, Johnson. P.R., An expanding Arabian-Nubian Shield geochronologic and isotopic dataset: defining limits and confirming the tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic accretionary orogen. Open Geology Journal, in press.

2013, Stern, R.J., Mukherjee, S.K., Miller, N.R., ~750 Ma Banded Iron Formation from the Arabian-Nubian Shield – Implications for understanding Neoproterozoic climate change. Precambrian Research, in press.

2013, Nettle, D., Halverson, G.P., Cox, G.M., Collins, A.S., Schmitz, M., Gehling, J., Johnson, P.R., Kadi, K., Middle-Late Ediacaran Volcano-Sedimentary Record from the Eastern Arabian-Nubian Shield: Terra Nova, in press.

2013, Johnson, P.R., Halverson, G.P., Kusky, T.M., Stern, R.J., Pease, V., Volcanosedimentary basins in the Arabian-Nubian shield: markers of repeated exhumation and denudation in a Neoproterozoic accretionary orogen: Geosciences Open Access, v. 3, p. 389-445.

2013, Johnson, P.R., and Kattan, F.H., The Geology of the Arabian Shield in Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey, 503 p.

2013, Fritz, H., Adbelsalam, M., Ali, K.A., Collins, A.S., Fowler, A.R., Ghebreab, W., Hauzenberger, C.A., Johnson, P.R., Kusky, T.M., Macey, P., Muhongo, S., Stern, R.J., Viola, G., Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: a review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution: Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 86, p. 65-106.  

2011, Johnson, P.R., Andresen, A., and others, Late Cryogenian-Ediacaran history of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A review of depositional, plutonic, structural and tectonics events in the closing stages of the northern East African Orogen: Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 61, p. 167-232.

2011, Stern, R.J., Johnson, P.R., Ali, K.A., and Mukherjee, S.K., Evidence for Early and mid-Cryogenian glaciation in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (Egypt, Sudan, and western Arabia), in Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (eds) The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 36, p. 277–284.

Stern, R.J., Johnson, P.R., Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis:Earth-Science Reviews, v. 101, p. 29–67.

2010, Stern, R.J., Ali, K.A., Liégeois, J.P., Johnson, P.R., Kozdroj, W., and Kattan, F.H., Distribution and significance of pre-Neoproterozoic zircons in juvenile Neoproterozoic igneous rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: American Journal of Science, v. 310, p. 791-811.

2008, Johnson, P.R., and Kattan, F.H., Lithostratigraphic revision in the Arabian Shield: the impacts of geochronology and tectonic analysis: Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, v. 33, p. 3-16.

2007, Johnson, P.R., and Kattan, F.H., Geochronologic dataset for Precambrian rocks in the Arabian Peninsula, a catalogue of U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar, and Sm-Nd ages: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2007-3, 21 p.

2006, Johnson, P.R., Geologic map of the Arabian shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1:500,000 scale: Saudi Geological Survey Technical Report SGS-TR-2005-4, in seven sheets, 1:500,000 scale.

2006, Johnson, P.R., Explanatory notes to the map of Proterozoic geology of western Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabian Geological Survey Technical Report SGS-TR-2006-4, 62 p.

2005, Johnson, P.R., Proterozoic geology of western Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Reports SGS-OF-2005-6, SGS-OF-2005-4, SGS-OF-2005-2, SGS-OF-2005-5, SGS-OF-2004-9, 48 p.

2004, Stern, R.J., Johnson, P.R., Kröner, A., and Yibas, B., Neoproterozoic ophiolites in the Arabian-Nubian shieldin Kusky, T.M., (ed.) Precambrian Ophiolites and related Rocks, Elsevier, Developments in Precambrian Geology, v. 13, p. 95-128  and

2004, Johnson, P.R., Kattan, F.H., and Al-Saleh, A.M., Neoproterozoic ophiolites in the Arabian shield: field relationships and structures, in Kusky, T.M., (ed.) Precambrian Ophiolites and related Rocks, Elsevier, Developments in Precambrian Geology, v. 13, p. 129-162.

2003, Johnson, P.R., Stern, R.J., and Abdelsalam, M., The Bi’r Umq-Nakasib suture zone in the Arabian-Nubian shield: A key to understanding crustal growth in the East African Orogen: Gondwana Research, v. 6, p. 523-530.

2003, Johnson, P.R., Post-amalgamation basins of the NE Arabian shield and implications for Ediacaran tectonism in the northern East African Orogen: Precambrian Research, v. 123, p. 321-337.

2003, Johnson, P.R., and Woldehaimanot, B., Development of the Arabian-Nubian shield: perspectives on accretion and deformation in the northern East African Orogen and the assembly of Gondwana, in Yoshida, M., Windley, B.F., and Dasgupta, S. (eds) Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent Assembly and Breakup, Geological Society of London Special Publication 206, p. 289-325.

2002, Johnson, P.R., Abdelsalam, M., and Stern, R.J., The Bi’r Umq-Nakasib shear zone: Geology and structure of a Neoproterozoic suture in the northern East African orogen, Saudi Arabia and Sudan: Saudi Geological Survey Technical Report SGS-TR-2002-1, 33 p.

2001, Johnson, P.R., Implications of SHRIMP and microstructural data on the age and kinematics of shearing in the Asir terrane, southern Arabian shield, Saudi Arabia: Gondwana Research, v. 4, p. 172-173.

2001, Johnson, P.R., and Kattan, F.H., Oblique sinistral transpression in the Arabian shield: the timing and kinematics of a Neoproterozoic suture zone: Precambrian Research, v. 107, p. 117-138.


Prof. Mohamed EI Bahay Issawi Mohamed Issawi, born inTanta - Egypt on August 23rd, 1934. 

Consulting Geologist, Cairo - Egypt.

- B. Sc. Geology and Chemistry, 1955 - Cairo University.
- M. Sc. Geology (Stratigraphy and Structures), 1964 - Cairo University.
- Ph. D. Geology (Stratigraphy and Structures), 1968 - Cairo University.
- Field Geologist since graduation mainly in sedimentary areas, in Egypt and outside (Norway, USA, Libya) interest mainly in Stratigraphy, Structural Geology, Mapping, Microscopic Studies and Sedimentology.
- Research Fellow in Olso University (May 1969 - September 1970), Norway.
- Visiting Professor in Geology of the Middle East; Southern Methodist University (September 1970 - May 1971), Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.
- Project Manager of Mapping Project in Libya, 1974-1977.
- Director General - Geological Survey of Egypt, 1982 - 1984.
- Under Secretary of State, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Wealth, Cairo - Egypt. 1984-1994
- State prize in Geology 1973, Cairo, Egypt.
- Art and Science medal 1976, Cairo, Egypt.
- Discovery of Abu Tartur phosphate deposits, west of Kharga Oasis (1961).
- Discovery of new iron ore deposits in Bahariya Oasis area (1963).
- Discovery of Kalabsha Kaolin deposit southwest of Aswan (1968).
- Mapping 70,000 km2, west of Nile at Aswan by using aerial Photographs during 1963, 1964, 1965,1966 and 1967.
- Training of more than 125 geologists; now stationed in the Geological Survey of Egypt, oil business, mining industry and in universities in and outside Egypt.
- Vice President, Geological Society of Africa, 1978 -1986.
- Editor, Annals Geological Survey of Egypt, 1978 -1983.
- Member, Editorial Board, SIENT - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1979 -1982.
- Member, Editorial Board, Jour. of African Earth Sciences, Pergamon Press, Paris, France, 1981 -1983.
- Member, Editorial Board, EPISODES, I.U.G.S. Jour., Ottawa, Canada, 1985 -1989.
- Member, Editorial Board, SAHARA, Milan, Italy, 1989 - 2007.
- Member, Egyptian Geological Soci., Cairo, 1957 - now.
- Visiting Professor. S. M. U. Dalias, Texas, U.S.A. during 1970 -1971. A course on the structure of the Middle east.
- Professor at Ain Shams University Faculty of Art, Geography Dept. during 1978, 1979, 1980. A course on history of the Earth.
- Professor at Menofia Univ., Faculty of Science, Geology Dept., Shebin el Kom, Egypt, during 1980, 1981, 1982. A course on stratigraphy.
- Professor at Aswan Univ., Faculty of Science, Geology Dept., Aswan, Egypt, during 1984 and 1989. A course on stratigraphy.
- Consulting geologist with the Egyptian Antiquity Organization, sharing in many projects dealing with the salvage and restoration of many tombs and temples in Luxor, Aswan and Abu Simbel areas. Also a member in the committees for the planning of the landscape of the Giza pyramids plateau and choosing the geological and prehistoric materials to be exhibited in the new Cultural Museum and also in Nuba Museum, 1985 -1990.
- Member of the High Consultant Committee for the studies of the side effects on the Aswan High Dam during 1984, 1985, 1986.
- Consulting geologist with the water Research Institute working in many projects e.g. subsurface water of Greater Cairo area, underground water potential of south Western Desert of Egypt, studies on the water springs in Sinai, identification of many aquifers in Sinai,1990 - 1995.
- Supervised the geological works on the protection and restoration of Luxor west bank antiquities: EI Deir EI Bahri, Nefertari tomb and the many temples there against earthquakesand flash floods. A study for the Paul Getty Foundation and the Egyptian Antiquities, 1986.
- Protection of the Great Sphinx in Giza against underground water, wind and floods. A study for the Egyptian Antiquities, 1992.
- Supervised the geological studies on the protection of Wadi Watir area - Sinai against flash floods which endanger the main road there and Nuweibei city. A study for Ministry of Development and Housing; 1992.
- Supervised the geological studies on Wadi EI Aat - Sinai to protect Sharm EI Sheikh town through the divertion of the flood course. A study for the Ministry of Tourism; 1993.
- Supervise the geological work on the protection of the Military storage tunnels against earthquake hazard, 1990 -1997.


By Dr. Yasser Medhat Abdelrahman (Cairo Univ., Egypt)

Rushdi Said is widely considered to be one of the most accomplished Egyptian geologists. He was born in Cairo on 1920 in a middle-class family with roots from Assiut. He attended Cairo University in 1937 as an undergraduate student in the Faculty of Science from which he graduated in 1941 with honors then he was appointed as a demonstrator in the same faculty. He began teaching geology in Cairo University in 1951 after returning from a scientific mission in the University of ZurichSwitzerland. He was one the first Egyptian scientists who received their Doctorate degree from Harvard University, more than 60 years ago.

Rushdi served as a professor at Cairo University from 1950 until 1968. During that time Rushdi was honored by the late Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1962, who awarded him the Order of Sciences and Arts, First Class. Then, he was appointed as the chairman of the board of the Egyptian Mining and Geological Research Organization (1968–1977). He played a major role in the development of the organization with the new mining discoveries. Before leaving Egypt in 1981 to Washigton DC, Rushdi was involved in politics in the sixties and seventies as a member of the People's Assembly and also as a member in the International Parliamentary Union.

Among his prominent scientific contributions

·         Rushdi was unique in choosing to specialize in the subject of geology of Egypt. He wrote a book on this topic which won the admiration of the scientists worldwide and became a recognized reference on a local level and globally.

·         He is also an expert in irrigation and he wrote books and articles on agriculture. That is because he was dedicated to understand the Nile and to use it in achieving the renaissance of Egypt and the development of the Egyptian Population.

·         Dr. Rushdi Said worked on the development of the Western Desert and transferring it to a useful territory. Thus, he suggested linking the Western Sahara with the Nile Valley to a network of transport and communications. It is proposed to stay within the area north of the Western Sahara and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea from the north and Qattara Depression and the Siwa Oasis from the south. This vast area has a mild climate, flat topography and proximity to areas of energy of natural gas and centers of urbanization and the sea that can be used in the cooling water in many industries.

·         He was also awarded the 2003 leadership of the American Association of Petroleum Geology, in recognition of his scientific work on the geology of Egypt and the Middle East, which opened up new horizons for the application of this science in the search for oil in the region.

During his remarkable career, Rushdi Said wrote and shared in many books not only on geology of Egypt but also on the life way of the Egyptians.

·         Foraminifera of the Northern Red Sea(1949)

·         The Geological Survey of Egypt, 1896-1971(Ministry of Industry, Petroleum and Mineral Wealth, Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, 1971)

·         Explanatory Notes to Accompany the Geological Map of Egypt(Ministry of Industry, Petroleum, and Mineral Wealth, Geological Survey of Egypt and Mining Authority, 1971)

·         Subsurface Geology of Cairo area(1975)

·         The Geological Evolution of the River Nile(Springer-Verlag, 1981)

·         The Geology of Egypt(Elsevier, 1962 & 1990)

·         The River Nile: Geology, Hydrology and Utilization(Pergamon, 1993)

·         al- aqiqah wa-al-wahm fi al-waqi al-Misri(Dār al-Hilāl, 1996)

·         Rilat Umr(Dār al-Hilāl, 2000)

·         Science and Politics in Egypt: A Life’s Journey (American University in Cairo Press, 2004)


N.B. Information given below is derived mostly from Bayerisches Geoinstiut (BGI)

Ahmed El Goresy, born in 1933, is a famous cosmochemist, homored by the Astronomcal Union in 2002. 

He grew in an Egyptian family with profound linguistic Arabic backgroud. His grandfather was a professor at the Al-Azhar University, speciallized in Arabic phonetics and history of medicine during the Abbaside Khalifat times.   




  • 1955 B. Sc. In Mineralogy and Petrology University of Heleolpolis, Cairo, Egypt
  • 1961 Dr. rer. nat. University of Heidelberg in opaque mineral petrology of igneous rocks.


Professional Experience:

  • 1961-1963 Research mineralogist at the Egyptian Geological Survey, Cairo, Egypt.
  • 1963-1967 Post-doctoral fellow at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg.
  • 1967-1969 Post-doctoral fellow at the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington D.C.
  • 1969-1998 Senior scientist at Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik in Heidelberg and Professor at Universität Heidelberg.
  • 1983-1984 Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
  • 1994 Guest Professor at the Muséum National d`Histoire Naturelle in Paris.
  • 1998-2005 Honorary Professor at Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie in Mainz.
  • 2005-present Guest at Bayerisches Geoinstiut


Research Interests:

Oxygen isotopic compositions of Solar Nebula earliest condensates. Carbon and Nitrogen isotopic compositions of graphite in primitive meteorites. Shock-induced high-pressure phase transitions in meteorites and in terrestrial impact craters.


  • 1972 Victor Moritz Goldschmidt Award, German Mineralogical Society (Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft).
  • 2002 Asteroid 1981EK8 (discovered 1981) was baptized El Goresy by the International Astronomical Union in recognition of his "outstanding contributions in improving our knowledge of the composition, structure and evolution of meteorites and their parent bodies".
  • 2003 Abrahm Gottlob Werner Medal of the Mineralogical Society of Germany (Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft) for outstanding research achievements.
  • 1972 Fellow of the Meteoritical Society.
  • 1973 Fellow of the Mineralogical Society of America.
  • 1975 Fellow of the Geological Society of America.
  • 1965 Member of the Mineralogical Soceity of Germany (Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft).

Prof. Ahmed Mohamed Abdelaziz El-Kammar (born on 7th of August 1946) is Emeritus Professor of Geochemistry at the Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University. 

He was graduated from Faculty of Science, Assiut University (Geology and Chemistry) with grade “Distinction with Honor” in 1967. In the same year, he was appointed in the Department of Geology, Cairo University to start his academic carrier as a demonstrator.

His M.Sc. (1971) and Ph.D. (1974) projects were carried out on the economic phosphate deposits of Egypt. In 1972, he was awarded Diploma of mineral prospecting from the Montanistichen Hochschule of Leoben in Austria. While carrying out his Ph.D., he discovered potential concentration of the rare earth elements in the phosphate deposits of Abu Tartur. This discovery was published in 1974 and 1975.

Prof. El-Kammar was granted in the period 1972-1973 a fellowship for advanced geochemical research in the Arsenal of Vienna. In 1978-1980 he was awarded the Norad fellowship in the University of Bergen in Norway, while in 1986-1987 he was awarded the Fulbright fellowship in the University of Virginia in the USA. In 1996 however he was invited to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna to carry out research on the isotope hydrogeology.

After the award of the Ph.D. in 1974, he was appointed as “Lecturer”, and then promoted to “Associate Professor” in 1980 and “Professor” in 1985. His main domain was geochemistry in its broad since; including inorganic, organic, environmental and radiometric geochemistry.

Prof. El-Kammar was appointed as Chairperson in the Department of Geology of the UAE University in 1995-1996 and in the Department of Geology of Cairo University in 2002-2006. He was nominated as a member of thePermanent Promotional Scientific Committee of the Supreme Council of the Egyptian Universities during the periods (2002-2005), (2005-2008) and (2008-2013). Currently, he is a Member of the “Supreme Advisory Committee for Basic Sciences”, Supreme Council of the Egyptian Universities. He was also nominated as member of the Permanent Promotional Scientific Committee of the Nuclear Material Authority of Egypt since 2002 until now, the National Research Center (2002-2005), and Al-Azhar University (2006-2012).

Currently, he is a member of the Geological Society of Egypt, Egyptian Mineralogists Association, Arab Mining and Petroleum Association, Egyptian Sedimentologists Association and the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Sedimentology of Egypt (2010-2012).  In April 2008, he organized a symposium on the “Sustainable Development of Ore Deposits” which was held in the Egyptian Mineral Resources Authority and was sponsored by the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. He organized also various workshops and training courses for isotope hydrology in arid environments, in the (Al-Ain) United Arab Emirates University (1995-1998).

He is a reviewer for many international, regional and local journals in the field of geology in general and geochemistry in particular. He is also a referee of the State Awards, Universities Awards, Fulbright Commission Awards and grants provided by the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. He has supervised more than 70 M.Sc. and Ph.D. thesis awarded from Cairo University, UAE University and most universities in Egypt.

Prof. El-Kammar is a co-author of the three books; (1) The Earth (in Arabic), for non-Geology Students in Al-Ain University, Published by UAE Univ., 1996-1998, 246 p., (2) Human bones as archaeological samples, Chapter 18, Archaeological Chemistry IV, Advances in Chemistry Series, 220, Analytical Chemical Society, Washington (1989), p. 508, and (3) Hydrocarbon generating basins and migration pathway in Gulf of Suez, LAP Lambert Academic publishing, Verlag, Germany, 72 p., 2013, ISBN: 978-3-659-43886-8.

Since 1974 and until now, he has published about 100 papers in international, regional and local journals. His name was to large extent linked to the phosphate deposits, oil (black) shale, the rare earth elements (REE), the natural radioactive resources and environmental geochemistry.

However, Prof. El-Kammar had participated in a large number of local and international projects. One of his latest consultation activity was the exploration and evaluation of the oil shale in Egypt that started in 2006 and concluded in 2010, with a total budget of 1.25 million US$ sponsored by DanaGas© Egypt and supervised by the Ministry of Petroleum and mineral resources of Egypt. The project involved detailed field investigations on the main oil shale occurrences in Egypt, drilling of 10 wells, full organic and inorganic analyses of about 2000 borehole samples, gamma spectrometry of the 10 wells, Fisher assay and several experiments of oil retorting in USA, Russia and Canada. The project concluded confidential data on the potentiality of the oil shale especially in the Safaga-Qusier region (Red Sea).